By Molly Yost
State leaders in search of some light reading are picking-up Duck on a Bike and putting down the bills as Colorado’s 2013 legislative session comes to a close. This past week more than 70,000 copies of the children’s book made their way into the hands of youngsters across the state as part of One Book 4 Colorado – a collaborative initiative between the Lt. Governor’s Office, Serve Colorado, the Denver Preschool Program, Reach out and Read Colorado, public libraries, and the business and philanthropic community. This is just one of several efforts geared towards raising public awareness about the importance of early literacy and the impact high quality early childhood education has on future academic achievement. In tandem with the week’s events was the release of the Colorado Reads 2013: The Early Literacy Initiative report. This comprehensive blueprint outlines the state’s progress and a path forward to ensure more children are reading at grade level by third grade.
Capping-off the excitement were a number of landmark measures aimed at strengthening the state’s birth to eight policy agenda by increasing access, quality, and coordination of early childhood programs. Here are some of the highlights from the 2013 legislative session:
- SB13-213: Dubbed “the Future School Finance Act,” this bill will modernize Colorado’s education financing system with an unprecedented focus on expanding access to high quality early childhood education, pending the passage of a statewide ballot initiative to approve requisite funding. The legislation would remove the cap of the number of slots available for the Colorado Preschool Program (current cap is 20,160 slots), allowing all at-risk 3- and 4-year olds to participate. In addition, the bill would increase access to full-day Kindergarten for families wishing to attend.
- SB13-260: Funding will be provided to increase enrollment in the Colorado Preschool Program by 3,200 slots through the state’s 2013-2014 School Finance Act. Districts can also choose to use the money for full-day kindergarten. The original version of the bill included the Expanding Quality Incentive Program (EQUIP), which would have created a $5 million grant program to support school districts seeking quality ratings for their preschool programs and also to improve program quality. EQUIP was stripped from the bill on the Senate floor.
- HB13-1117: “The Alignment of Early Childhood and Development Programs” strengthens Colorado’s newly-established Office of Early Childhood by moving additional early childhood programs from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment into the CDHS. Governor Hickenlooper and Executive Director of Colorado Department of Human Services (CDHS), Reggie Bicha, announced the creation of the Office of Early Childhood last summer. The office seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of program delivery and administration by co-locating several early childhood programs within the CDHS. The legislation also reauthorized the Early Childhood Leadership Commission, Colorado’s Early Childhood State Advisory Council.
- HB13-1291: This legislation creates the Colorado Infant and Toddler Quality and Availability Grant Program within CDHS. The $3 million grant program encourages local early childhood councils and county departments of human services to partner to increase the quality and availability of care for programs serving infants and toddlers through the Colorado Child Care Assistance Program (CCCAP). The grant program offers local communities the flexibility to implement plans by providing quality ratings to non-rated participating classrooms, quality improvement grants, higher reimbursement rates to programs rated in the top two levels of Colorado’s quality rating and improvement system, and fostering parental involvement.
With the support of Governor Hickenlooper and Lt. Governor Garcia, early childhood education emerged as a top priority this session. This year’s budget reflects significant investments not only in ECE, but an increase of $4.5 million in state funding for Early Intervention Colorado and an $800,000 increase in the Nurse Home Visitor Program to expand direct services to six additional counties in northeast Colorado. Spring seems to be blooming with good news for Colorado children and families!
If you were to walk to the Clayton Early Learning building today you would walk along a path of blue and silver pinwheels (given that the children haven't already "plucked" up all the enticing spinning sparkles)! Walk inside and you see a rather large Pinwheel on the wall. Why all the pinwheels you may wonder? Well, April was National Child Abuse Prevention month and the pinwheel is symbolic of the bright futures that ALL children deserve. To learn more about the Pinwheels for Prevention campaign visit their website: http://www.preventchildabusecolorado.org/ Child Abuse is a topic that hits the pit of your stomach. It’s tragic, horrifying, and unthinkable. But it's important that we do talk about its presence in our community, because ignoring the issue isn't going to make it go away. Support for child abuse prevention efforts have expanded due in part to the growing body of evidence that suggests home visitation programs for families with young children can reduce the incidence of maltreatment and improve child and family outcomes. Additional research has shown the impact Six Protective Factors have on strengthening families and as a result reducing the likelihood of child abuse within those families. Programmatically we are working within home visitation programs and these ‘protective factors’ every day. Therefore, it is easy to see how Clayton Early Learning is poised at the front lines to be making giant impacts with this work. We don't need a specific "month" to work within these concepts (because it is what our program is fundamentally about) but it's a great opportunity to align with community efforts to help spread the word. So let me tell you a little bit more about what those ‘protective factors’ are.
6 Protective Factors
- Nurturing and Attachment - It is the basis of all development. Babies are born social creatures and need attachments to survive. This protective factor emphasizes the importance for caregivers to understand and meet their child’s need for love, affection and stimulation.
- Social Connections - Much like the Nurturing and Attachment factor. The social connections protective factor addresses the importance of caregivers to build a network of emotionally supportive friends, family and neighbors.
- Parental Resiliency - All families have inner strengths and skills. This protective factor focuses on the ability of families to tap into these resources, which can help serve as a foundation for building their internal resiliency.
- Knowledge of Parenting and Child Development - Knowing what is the usual course of child development helps provide families with the ability to set realistic and consistent expectations for their children.
- Social Emotional Competency of Children - The more children are able to identify, regulate and communicate their feelings, the more responsive families can be to meet their children’s needs, which leads to decreased stress and frustration.
- Concrete Supports for Parents - This is the tangible supports we can offer to families such as parenting support groups, resources, and educational classes.
To learn more about these Protective Factors and how you can be active in strengthening families visit the websites of The Center for the Study of Social Policy and the Child Welfare Information Gateway [http://www.cssp.org].
Please take a few extra minutes this month to educate yourself on ways Colorado is addressing Child Abuse.
Whatever your role, you can find ways to encourage providers and parents in building these protective factors within their families and communities.
History of Child Abuse Prevention Month. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/preventing/preventionmonth/history.cfm
Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well-Being: A Network for Action 2013. Retrieved from http://www.preventchildabusecolorado.org/
Supporting Evidence-Based Home Visiting to Prevent Child Maltreatment. Retrieved from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/earlychildhood/evidencebasedhomevisiting.asp
Other ideas for setting a positive environment.
By Megan Bock
Kids say the darnedest things. I am still caught off guard when I hear our preschool students use one of my phrases. Sometimes I hear a student say, “Okey Dokey Artichokey” or “Silly Willy,” two of my common goofy phrases. Other times I hear my students say, “How can I help you?” or “What are we going to do about this?” When I stop and listen, I hear myself in my students. Considering how much my students absorb from their environment, I realize my approach is deeply influential in our classroom culture. After hearing my echo across our classroom, I decided to more intentionally examine how to shape our culture to foster vulnerability, courage, resilience, and security.
The Office of Head Start describes ideal classroom environments as:
…places where children feel well cared for and safe. They are places where children are valued as individuals and where their needs for attention, approval, and affection are supported. They are also places where children can be helped to acquire a strong foundation in the knowledge and skills needed for school success. (“Creating a Learning Environment,” 2002)
In my efforts to move closer to this ideal environment, I began reading books and listening to TED talks http://www.ted.com/talks/brene_brown_on_vulnerability.html by Brené Brown, a research professor at the University of Houston Graduate College of Social Work. Brown researches shame and vulnerability and identifies practices that lead to “wholehearted living.” In her recent book, Daring Greatly: How Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead, Brown discusses how vulnerability is both the core of difficult emotions like fear, grief, and disappointment and the birthplace of love, belonging, joy, empathy, innovation, and creativity. While reading Brown’s book, I discovered that vulnerability is a vital part of any culture that inspires innovation and learning.
Brown describes culture as “the way we do things around here” (Brown, 2012, p. 174). She writes about how culture describes who we are and what we believe. When thinking about cultures of organizations, schools, faith communities, and teams, Brown asks these ten questions:
- What behaviors are rewarded? Punished?
- Where and how are people actually spending their resources (time, money, attention)?
- What rules and expectations are followed, enforced, and ignored?
- Do people feel safe and supported talking about how they feel and asking for what they need?
- What are the sacred cows? Who is most likely to tip them? Who stands the cows back up?
- What stories are legend and what values do they convey?
- What happens when someone fails, disappoints, or makes a mistake?
- How is vulnerability (uncertainty, risk, and emotional exposure) perceived?
- How prevalent are shame and blame and how are they showing up?
- What’s the collective tolerance for discomfort? Is the discomfort of learning, trying new things, and giving and receiving feedback normalized, or is there a high premium put on comfort (and how does that look)?
These questions stirred me to consider the culture in my classroom, my workplace, and my family. While all questions provoked my thinking, questions seven and ten most inspired me to think the cultures in my life.
Question #7: What happens when someone fails, disappoints, or makes a mistake?
Failing, disappointing, and making mistakes are part of the learning process. Everyone makes mistakes, but we need to fix our errors, clean up our messes, and reconcile injured relationships. When resolving issues in our classroom, we collaboratively problem-solve and identify a solution. We acknowledge the mistake, but we spend most of our time and energy working toward a resolution.
Question #10: What’s the collective tolerance for discomfort? Is the discomfort of learning, trying new things, and giving and receiving feedback normalized, or is there a high premium put on comfort (and how does that look)?
This question caused me to consider how I give feedback and challenge my students. I often tell my students, “I am still learning how to do this.” All of us are still learning something, but we also recognize our strengths so that we can help each other improve. Comfort in our classroom has more to do with our relationships with each other and less to do with the content of our curriculum. When we work on challenging projects that push us out of our comfort zones, each of us is stretched to try new things and do our best.
After reflecting on Brown’s questions, I pay more attention to my echoes. What are my students saying? How are do they respond to each other? Can I see evidence of their sense of security, their willingness to try new things, and their tolerance for the discomfort of learning?
Where do you hear your echo? In your family? In your co-workers? In your students? What do your echoes tell you about your culture? Which question(s) provoke you to try something different in your communities?
Blog by Megan Bock
Brown, B (2012). Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead. New York: Gottham Books.
Creating a Learning Environment for Young Children. (2012). Teaching our Youngest. Early Childhood-Head Start Task Force. ED/HHS. Retrieved from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/eecd/learning%20environments/planning%20and%20arranging%20spaces/edudev_art_00400_060906.html
By Molly Yost
Policymaking occurs on several different levels – at the federal, state, and local level. What is policy and why does it matter to us? Policy is a course of action, selected from alternatives which guides and determines decisions and practices. Policy may refer to action of governments and of public and/or private organizations. This post will explore a significant piece of early childhood policy and the process by which it makes its way through the Colorado General Assembly.
“There are two things you don’t want to see being made – sausage and legislation.” Attributed to German Chancellor Otto von Bismark (1815-1898), this timeless comparison of sausage making and lawmaking has endured for centuries. John A. Straayer offered this description of our very own state legislature in his book, The Colorado General Assembly: a venue in which “a score of basketball games are progressing, all at one time, on the same floor, with games at different stages, with participants playing on several teams at once, switching at will, opposing each other in some instances and acting as teammates in others.” Casinos, marketplaces, and zoos are also metaphorical favorites when expounding the chaotic and awesome nature of legislatures.
All bills, in accordance with state statute, follow a common format. Bills are assigned a number, a title, and a sponsor. HB13-1117 indicates that the bill was the 117th bill introduced in the House (all House bills are numbered from 1001) in the year 2013. HB13-1117, sponsored by Representative Hamner and Senators Hodge and Newell, was introduced earlier in the session and assigned to the Public Health Care and Human Services Committee (committee of reference) by the Speaker of the House. This introduction is commonly known as the bill’s “first reading.” In Committee, the bill is presented by a sponsor and its details are carefully scrutinized. Research, testimony, and studies on the bills fiscal impact are reviewed and discussed by committee members. From here, committee members can amend the bill, refer it to another committee, postpone indefinitely (also known has “killing” a bill), or lay it over for consideration later in the legislative session.
So what are the ingredients in the bill? HB13-1117 has two major components. The first component of the bill is the transfer of several programs from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) to the Department of Human Services in order to promote greater alignment and increase the efficiency of program administration, policies, and procedures to better serve children and families. As you may know, there are several different programs serving children and families spread across several different state agencies. The result is a very fragmented system that is often difficult for families to navigate. The following programs will be relocated from CDPHE to CDHS to enhance coordination and collaboration at the state and local level:
• the Nurse Home Visitation Program;
• the Tony Grampsas Youth Services Program including the Colorado Student Dropout Prevention and Intervention Program and the Colorado Before-and-After School Project;
• the Colorado Children's Trust Fund and its board; and
• the Family Resource Center Program.
The second component reauthorizes the Early Childhood Leadership Commission (Colorado’s Early Childhood State Advisory Council) until 2018 and relocates it from the Lieutenant Governor’s Office to the Colorado Department of Human Services (CDHS) Division of Boards and Commissions. This commission, comprised of state agency representatives, business leaders, providers, and parents, will be responsible for making recommendations and advising further alignment of early childhood programs and funding streams.
After discussion and testimony, HB13-1117 was slightly amended (or altered) and successfully “passed out” of the House Public Health Care and Human Services Committee. After making its way through the House, the bill was sent to the Senate Committee on Health and Human Services where it passed with bi-partisan support (6-1). Next stop: the Senate Appropriations Committee.
If you would like to read HB13-1117, view voting history, or find other information about the Colorado legislature, visit: http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2013A/cslFrontPages.nsf/HomeSplash?OpenForm
“How Our Laws Are Made” infographic by Mike Wirth and Dr. Suzanne Cooper-Guasco for Sunlight Foundation “Design for America Competition” 2010, sources: “How Our Laws Are Made” by John V. Sullivan (Rev. 6.24.07 thomas.loc.gov) and What is a Lobbyist? - wiseGEEK and Reconciliation in the Senate - Brookings Institution. See full-size image at, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Visualization-of-How-a-Bill-Becomes-a-Law_Mike-WIRTH.jpg. Learn more at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedures_of_the_U.S._Congress
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) is an approach to teaching grounded both in the research on how young children develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education. Its framework is designed to promote young children’s optimal learning and development. DAP involves teachers meeting young children where they are (by stage of development), both as individuals and as part of a group; and helping each child meet challenging and achievable learning goals. http://www.naeyc.org/DAP
In my opinion, the planning team for the Buell Early Childhood Leadership Program (BECLP) rooted and grounded the program’s framework (for leaders and emerging leaders in the field) with the same Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) concept as listed above. Whether purposed or incidental it is the responsible for the success of the program!
I first learned of BECLP in 2009 and decided to attend an open house. I considered applying for the 2010/2011 cohort, but life presented me with the birth of my 3rd child. The 2011/2012 cohort was the 5th and possibly final cohort and my last opportunity to take advantage of such a uniquely developed and prestigious program. As an administrator with over 15 years experience in Early Childhood, Bachelors in Management and an MBA in Administration, I attended numerous ECE workshops and conferences, but did not have an extensive amount of college credits related directly to ECE. BECLP provided an opportunity for me to advance to a Level V Early Childhood Credential. I was curious and initially unsure how BECLP’s curriculum would strengthen me as a leader in the field, especially since my work role lies in the business sector with a focus outside the classroom.
I was ecstatic when I received the letter stating I was one of the 20 chosen to go through the program. During our summer symposium the BECLP teaching staff brought in Dr. Jill Stamm to present on early brain development: birth to three. Dr. Stamm’s shared knowledge awakened my interest in the neuroscience connected to early brain development. The more I learned through BECLP the more I wanted to know and the more my passion grew for “chocolate” aka children (inside story).
The most rewarding aspects about the program were:
- Learning patience with my passion through the Theory U tool
- The teaching techniques used by the BECLP team accommodated differentiated learning styles
- More than just text books: field trips, presentations, projects, group work, Q&A sessions with a panel of experts, guest speakers (doctors, politicians, business personnel, researchers, experts) all of whom were extremely knowledgeable and who presented content directly related to the field, face-to-face experiences with legislators on the legislative floor, curriculum connected to real work and hands-on activities covering all arenas of ECE from teaching to finance to advocacy
- Assigned a personal BECLP mentor and able to elect our own field mentor
- Being a BFF (Buell Fellow Five) – which generated new relationships. These relationships opened network opportunities and connections to different leaders with diverse roles in ECE representing numerous counties in Colorado.
The BECLP team created the ideal classroom for adults. The classroom modeled how school systems should create learning environments for early learners; taking them out from behind the desk and chairs and adding fun (neuroscience brain note: fun is connected with pleasure, which in turn creates a chemical release in the brain to want more). Creating fun learning environments = the desire to want to learn more (an ingenious concept).
Navigating through Theory U was my biggest struggle, but it helped me unveil an ACT for my critical issue. With this program I was able to identify a need in the field and ACT as a leader to generate a ripple toward a solution. In extension to my capstone project I collaborated with two BECLP fellows (Sena Harjo & Dorothy Shapland) to create The Nest Matters: Advice from egg to flight.
The Nest Matters focuses on early child development from prenatal (the egg phase) through the stages of tweens when children prepare to leave the nest (the flight phase).In partnership with the Denver Urban Spectrum, The Nest Matters features a monthly column and has created its own blog (www.thenestmatters.blogspot.com) sharing the latest research from experts, researchers, and doctors in Early Childhood Education and Child Development. The owner of Denver Urban Spectrum is working with The Nest Matters in building its audience with the goal to launch its own community magazine focused on early child development.
The BECLP helped foster me as a leader and it has been an awesome journey ever since. The BECLP Alumni Network continues to provide an opportunity to remain active and stay connected with other fellows. Learning that BECLP had been extending was the best news and I am looking forward to meeting and possibly working with the next group of fellows.
Working With Young Families: Training That All Early Childhood Providers Should Have, But Rarely Receive
Most early childhood professionals have taken at least one course (if not several) about how to engage families in their child’s education, how to promote cultural diversity in early education programs and the educator’s role in serving families from all socio-economic backgrounds. While these courses are incredibly invaluable to the competent and intentional teacher, they typically fail to provide an adequate focus on one of our country’s most vulnerable populations: the 1,354 children that are born each day to a teenage mother (DeJong, 2003) Having worked in the early childhood realm for over 8 years as a teacher, administrator and family services professional, I have enjoyed the benefit of extremely advantageous access to professional development opportunities; though I have been consistently surprised regarding the lack of formal training or education that is available for early education professionals who will almost certainly serve teen parent families at some point in their careers. As educators, we know that developing effective relationships with our students and their parents will only serve to support a positive education experience. Like all families, serving teen parents and their children requires a professional approach that is culturally competent and individualized according to the needs of the family. In order to provide this, educators require in-depth training that recognizes the unique needs of teen parents.
My experience with teen parents is both professional and personal. At the age of 16, I became a mother for the first time. Like many teen parents, the news that you will be having a baby took me by surprise and stimulated a great deal of stress and fear for myself as well as the father of my unborn child. The most primitive logistics of how I would care for another human being were completely overwhelming to me throughout my pregnancy and even after Kaleb was born, I lacked confidence in my ability to care for my child. For this reason, introducing Kaleb to a group childcare environment was simultaneously a relief and an additional stress. Throughout Kaleb’s earliest years, I experienced both positive and negative interactions with his early education teachers. Some professionals treated me with the same doubt and shame that I already innately felt, while others were nurturing to me as well as my son. In addition to the challenges presented by the educators’ own biases, my own behaviors were as incomprehensible to them as most teenagers’ actions and words are to their own parents. After years of reflection, I continue to wonder how the interactions between me and providers could have been improved had the teachers been trained on how to support teen families. What kind of parent could I have been for Kaleb if I hadn’t been so resistant to the advice of his teachers? Is there a way that Kaleb’s caregivers could have approached me so that I wouldn’t have felt so judged? So inadequate? Ultimately I wonder how Kaleb’s experience could have been more complete and successful if his parents had been more engaged in his preschool community.
This month I will be presenting my personal story with supporting data and research at the Rocky Mountain Early Childhood Conference. I am looking forward to this opportunity to provide guidance for educators and administrators who strive to develop effective relationships and program engagement with the teen parents they serve today or may serve in the future. The sub-topics that I will discuss are intended to guide teachers in understanding what type of individualization may be necessary to effectively communicate with teens, as well as encourage teachers who may not realize the extent of the impact that providers can have on young families. Some of the content areas that will be reviewed include:
- Teen brain development and how we can use Erikson’s 8 Stages to better understand challenging teen behaviors
- How the psychological effects of teen parenthood may present challenges for providers
- Strategies for building effective and trusting relationships with teen parents (including establishing appropriate roles and professional boundaries)
- How effective early educators can positively impact teen families immediately and in the long-term
Though I will not be the first to present this information for educators, I believe that this topic requires far more academic attention than early education professionals receive in traditional degree or certificate programs. As providers see more and more teens bringing their children to early education centers for care, we must take the initiative with our professional development plans to ensure that we can effectively serve families of all kinds. Teachers can have a powerful impact on parenting behaviors and philosophies. While I look forward to hosting a forum where I can support educators’ practice and approach with teens, I am mutually excited to remind teachers of the potential that exists within their relationships with all families; but especially our teen parents. Though the interactions that teachers have with young families may not be without challenges, there is a great reward in knowing that you have been a support for a parent as well as their child. The chance to educate young families is an opportunity that early education programs cannot afford to lose; especially when the greatest barrier to teacher efficacy is simply a lack of training.
Are you ready to learn more about how we can effectively serve teen families? If so, please attend my presentation at the RMECC on March 1, 2013 at 3:30pm in room 503.
DeJong, L. (2003). Using Erikson to Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents. Young Children, v58 n2, 87-95.
Several years ago, I decided that it was time to further my career by enrolling in a Master’s Degree program. I had spent my post-Bachelor years in the human services field; however the focus always was on children and families. As a matter of fact, my lifelong passion had been children and families; however, I had a specific interest for English Language Learners and the importance of maintaining individual home languages. Nonetheless, I was at a complete loss for what type of post graduate degree I should aim for.
I knew that I wanted to help advocate for this particular community, but I had no idea what career paths were available to take. I contemplated getting a Master’s in Bilingual Education but that never seemed to come to fruition. As I continued my work with children and families, I started to notice a large portion of culturally insensitive practices continuing to occur in the preschool classroom. Oftentimes these occurrences led to unnecessary IEPs and/or inappropriate goals placed on IEPs. This led me to consider a Master’s degree in Special Ed, yet I was unaware how this would allow for a specific concentration on ELLs, nor could I imagine what path I would embark on after receiving this degree.
I continued exploring different options for obtaining an MA, that would really allow for individualization for my passion. Eventually the perfect program came along. They were looking for candidates for the 1st year of the Buell Early Childhood Education Leadership Program. I was encouraged to apply. Again, I was hesitant because I wasn’t sure that I could embark on my desired career path from the resulting degree.
After tons of discussion with multiple mentors, I decided to go for it. I applied, was called in for an interview and waited excruciatingly long for a response. Unfortunately I was not accepted. The following year, I was personally contacted with a request to reapply. I did so begrudgingly, expecting another rejection. Luckily this wasn’t the case.
I recall the first day, sitting in the familiar classroom setups that are so often trademarked by interactive classrooms to facilitate discussion and collaboration. I was completely intimidated as we went round robin “telling about ourselves”. By comparison, the breadth of knowledge all my fellow fellows (pun intended) seemed expansive.
As the year passed, and we discussed, debated and informed ourselves about the issues in the Early Childhood Field, I became more confident. I found my voice. I spent my year researching my passion which was centered on English Language Learners with Special Needs. All the research culminated in a grant to develop a Toolkit for Families going through the IFSP/IEP process. In short, I built a strong foundation that would propel me for the next stages in my career.
In the years since then, my tie to the Buell community has served me well. Since the first year that I applied, 97 Buell Fellows from all around Colorado have completed the program. The beauty of the program is that your learning doesn’t stop the day you end the program. You continue participating and advocating in a variety of ways in the ECE community. You continue growing, discovering and evolving. You find a new sense of purpose and passion.
I signed up for the Buell ECE Leadership Program with the sole intention of getting a MA. I got that and so, so much more.
(…and now you can too. Buell is currently accepting applications. The deadline is February 22, 2013. Apply here)
You can follow Jennifer's blog at, http://jennieloveslanguage.wordpress.com/
By Nathan Pope
Many readers may have heard of the concept Response to Intervention (RTI), but may not know what it looks like in practice, or that RTI can be applied to Pre-K settings. This blog is an introduction to RTI, and the goal is for educators and administrators to recognize the need and value in implementing or expanding an effective RTI program in their preschools. Future articles in this series will address what parents need to know about RTI, emerging RTI models, and effective interventions.
What is RTI?
RTI is a recognized evidence-based practice to improve educational outcomes for all children regardless of whether they are in general or special education. In addition, federal and state accountability policies support the use of RTI in annual reporting of individual child progress (Head Start for School Readiness Act, 2007). The RTI problem-solving model has been increasingly implemented in K-12 education since the late 1990s, and research suggests that an RTI approach can be beneficial in the years prior to kindergarten.
Why Do Schools Need RTI?
Many children enter preschool without having a strong foundation of language, early literacy, and socio-emotional regulation skills. Do you have a child that is having trouble recognizing letters? If so, implementing RTI could help children learn key skills. Pre-K RTI provides an evidence-based practice for preventing or mitigating the occurrence of language, literacy, and academic learning difficulties or learning disabilities. In schools where universal screening in key areas of academic and behavioral areas occurs, students who are falling behind are quickly identified and interventions are discussed, implemented, and monitored to see if the interventions help the student get back on a trajectory for success.
What does a RTI model look like?
RTI is a dynamic, multi-tier framework of support to provide differentiated instructional interventions for individual students based on their demonstrated need. There is no universal model of RTI, but the common features of Pre-K RTI include:
- Providing all children research-based curriculum and instructional methods to reach the desired educational outcomes (Tier 1).
- Universal screening to identify children not learning as expected, and providing additional focused, intensive instruction and monitoring their progress more frequently (Tier 2).
- Providing additional support to students when Tier 2 instruction failed or who need even more intensive intervention (Tier 3).
At the state level, the Colorado RTI framework promotes high-quality research-based curriculum and interventions based on children’s academic and behavioral needs.
What can RTI look like at my Preschool?
Many preschools already have some of the components of RTI in place, but need to supplement their existing program and refine professional development in areas that need additional support. For instance, if a preschool is already using a research-based core curriculum such as Teaching Strategies Gold, Tier 1 instruction will stay the same. The universal screening measure will depend on what skills or behavior you want to evaluate. Schools evaluating receptive vocabulary may want to use the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-4) or the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-5). There are now several pre-k progress monitoring tools available for Tier 2 including the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). Tier 3 interventions include more frequent and intensive individualized interventions. Under the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), children may be referred to see if they are a “child with a disability.” RTI may not be used to delay or replace a full evaluation to determine if they are eligible for special education and related services.
Are you ready to implement or improve RTI practices at your preschool? You can start by filling out a school-level RTI rubric. Stay tuned for additional blogs on this critically important topic!
My Top 5 RTI Resources
- Colorado Department of Education RTI page: http://www.cde.state.co.us/RtI/LearnAboutRtI.htm
- Colorado Response to Intervention: A Practitioner’s Guide to Implementation http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdegen/downloads/RtIGuide.pdf
- Roadmap to Pre-K RTI: Applying Response to Intervention in Preschool Settings http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/ld-education-teachers/roadmap-pre-k-rti
- The Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach in Early Childhood http://www.milcleaders.org/media/cms/files/Content/Pages/Focus%20on%20Exceptional%20Children.pdf
- The RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/pre-k
By Megan Bock
Open the pages of Paul Tough’s new book, How Children Succeed http://www.paultough.com/the-books/how-children-succeed/ , and you will find stories, research, and narration offering insight into the ways children harness grit and curiosityto overcome obstacles to reach their potential. The book highlights research studies which challenge what Tough calls the “cognitive hypothesis,” the belief that IQ is the key indicator of success. Instead, Tough argues strong character and behavior skills are a better indicator of success than standard measurements of intelligence.
Tough examines different factors influencing a child’s ability to eventually graduate college and pursue a career of their choosing. He discusses how children who grow up in highly stressful environments must become resilient to adversity in order to be successful in school. One research study by Michael Meaney, a neuroscientist at McGill University, demonstrated how rats were able to overcome stress with a parental buffer. Meaney noticed how rat pups’ stress levels increased when scientists handled them but recovered when returned to their mothers who licked and groomed them. He noticed different rates of licking and grooming among rat mothers and set up an experiment where researchers compared rat pups that experienced high and low rates of licking and grooming. He found that rats who had high rates of licking and grooming did better on all tests; they were better at mazes, more social, more curious, and less aggressive. They had more self-control, were healthier, and lived longer. Meaney also found striking differences in the size and shape of brain centers that regulate stress response of high- and low-licking and grooming rats. While the social and intellectual worlds of human children are likely far more complex than those of rats, Meany and other scientists have seen this phenomenon in humans as well, which is often referred to as attachment. Children who are securely attached to a caregiver have similarly positive results.
Tough also explores Walter Mischel’s marshmallow test and subsequent research studies as evidence of self-control as an essential non-cognitive skill (Tough, 2012, p. 64). In the late 1960’s, Mischel conducted an experiment at Stanford University where children were given a marshmallow and told they could eat the marshmallow or wait until the researcher returned and receive another marshmallow. The experiment tested students’ ability to defer gratification, an important element of self-control. Follow-up studies showed that children who were able to delay gratification longer received higher scores on the SAT assessment.
A focus on social emotional development has been commonplace in Head Start since its inception in 1965 (“Domain 6,” 2003). Social emotional development is included as a domain in Head Start’s Child Development and Early Learning Framework and Clayton’s early learning curriculum. Just as students need to leave preschool with critical thinking skills and letter and number knowledge, kindergarten-bound students must learn self-control, deferred gratification, and positive responses to failure in order to do well in school. As described on the Head Start website, “Promoting young children’s social-emotional development is a major responsibility of any early childhood program. Because so many Head Start children experience emotional and social risk factors, the Head Start program has the added responsibility of taking steps to help children develop skills that contribute to resiliency. These steps include providing warm, positive relationships with teachers and other adults, helping children make friends with other children and developing their interests and abilities” (“Domain 6,” 2003).
While social emotional development has been a priority in ECE for many years, educators on all grade levels are beginning to prioritize both cognitive and social skills. Tough describes how Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) kindergarten through high school charter schools emphasize both academic and character education. Students at KIPP receive report cards that describe both academic and character skills. Teachers discuss students’ progress in grit, self-control, zest, social intelligence, gratitude, optimism, and curiosity (Tough, 2012, p. 76).
Tough’s work causes readers to think about how we educate our students and examines why students need support and teaching beyond ABC’s and 123’s. Tough (2012) wrote:
Science suggests… that character strengths that matter so much to young people’s success are not innate; they don’t appear in us magically, as a result of good luck or good genes. And they are not simply a choice. They are rooted in brain chemistry, and they are molded, in measurable and predictable ways, by the environment in which children grow up. That means the rest of us- society as a whole- can do an enormous amount to influence their development in children. (p. 196).
As a community invested in molding our next generation, we need to remember what we can do. When teaching students, do we praise students’ work ethic and their persistence to complete a task? Do we remember the significance of students waiting their turn, the importance of a positive teacher/student relationship, and the enormous effect of a smile and a high five? Do we consider the profound impact of engaged and responsive parenting and our ability to influence a child’s environment to create positive outcomes?
Domain 6: Social and Emotional Development. (2003). The Head Start Leaders Guide to Positive Child Outcomes. HHS/ACF/ACYF/HSB. Retrieved from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/eecd/Domains of Child Development/Social and Emotional Development/edudev_art_00016_061705.html
Tough, P. (2012). Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
On multiple occasions a year, the staff at Clayton Early Learning gathers into one of our many meeting spaces for professional development. This is an opportunity for us to look at various aspects of research and we are challenged to deliberate and often are called to action. This school year has been no exception. Early this year we gathered together to review a piece of research that would help us improve our practice and encourage us to focus on building stronger relationships with the families we work with; Metatheories of Childrearing by Ronald Lally can be found in the pages of Concepts of Care: 20 Essays on Infant Toddler Development and Learning.
Lally draws attention to the fact that every person has a theory, fed by experiences, that contributes to their point of view on child rearing. This is important to understand, especially by those who are in the position of working directly with parents, caregivers or home visitors in matters of childrearing, guidance and discipline. Being that each individual will be bringing a different set of values and opinions, there can be a difference of opinion between practitioners and clients. These differences are typically caused by conflicting Metatheories of Childrearing. Simply put, a meta-theory of child rearing is the story carried by an adult about what makes a children act and how a child must be treated given those actions. By identifying our individual and organizational beliefs in child rearing we are able to work more effectively with our children and families by reaching a third space where you can work together around new ideas. These Metatheories are popular amongst both caregivers and parents:
The Blank Slate (Empty Vessel): From this point of view the way children turn out is completely based on the experiences the children have in the environments in which they are raised and through the provision of information by others.
The Unfolding Flower (Noble Savage): The child is viewed as a flower that is blossoming with a trajectory for healthy growth that is present from birth. From this meta-theory a child’s development can be damaged from too much interference from the outside.
The Constantly Tempted: Also referred to as the “Devil On Left Shoulder – Angel On the Right”. Individuals who see child rearing this way want the child to be on guard so that they pay attention to whom is whispering in the ear. They will warn the child to pay attention to that angel whispering, not listen to the temptation of the devil and to stay vigilant. They continually remind the child that they are in a struggle between good and evil, and will be tempted to do bad things.
The Savage: From this point of view unless impulses are strongly inhibited and controlled right from birth the child will be an un-socialized wild person.
The Unknowing/UnfeelingThe Unknowing/Unfeeling: This metatheorie suggests that little engagement happens until age two and pretty much anything can happen in front of children of a younger age without permanent consequence.
The Late/Early Bloomer: This philosophy believes that until a child is about 5, 6, or 7 years old – the age of reason – that the child does not have the capacity or the responsibility for right or wrong actions. children are given free reign to explore, allowed to play, allowed to transgress i.e. to “be children”. But come age 5, 6 or 7 things change dramatically. Expectations of children change quickly, almost over night as do socialization patterns and educational practices.
The Predestined: From this perspective those who care for children see their roles as both one of nurturance and of facilitation of the child’s learning agenda.
What if your Metatheorie on Childrearing? How does it impact your decisions as a parent or educator?
101 Three Friends 7131 (2010). [Graph illustration http://mrg.bz/5yqfhD February 12, 2010]. Retrieved from http://www.morguefile.com/archive/display/648996